Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology 2005;31(6):771-780. DOI:10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2005.01.019
A potential noninvasive means for obtaining the value of ultrasound (US) phase shifts caused by the skull is examined. Knowledge of these shifts could be used in new methods that restore the focus from an US array after transcranial propagation. In the present study, a pulsed signal was emitted from a single element of a therapeutic US transducer. The reflected signal was then recorded. The data were examined over the band width of the transducer, producing amplitude data as a function of frequency. A periodic appearance of local maxima and minima was observed in the data as a function of frequency. We hypothesize that the amplitude is primarily determined by the superposition of the reflections between the interfaces at the inner and outer surfaces of the skull and between the interior interfaces of trabecular and cortical bone. A homogeneous-layer model was used to predict the forward-propagated phase using the reflection data. Good correlation was found between the numeric calculation and phases measured after propagation through single-layer plastic plates. The method was used on curved three-layer plastic phantoms and four excised human skulls. The procedure could eventually be applied toward phasing multielement arrays. Such an application could have implications in both therapeutic and diagnostic brain procedures.
Copyright © 2005 Elsevier
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Clinic Ultrasound Laboratory (クレメント超音波研究室)
Cleveland Clinic (クリーブランド・クリニック),
Lerner Research Institute
Case Western Reserve University